This time, on 24 October 1559, the Scottish nobility formally deposed Mary of Guise from the regency. Gathering forces in northern England, the Lancastrians surprised and killed York at Wakefield in December and then marched south toward London, defeating Warwick on the way at the Second Battle of St. Albans (February 17, 1461). His army crushed the weak defenses of Zutphen and put nearly every man in town to death, hanging some by the feet while drowning 500 others. Henry recovered in 1455, reestablishing the authority of Margaret’s party. King Charles I decided to send an expeditionary force to relieve the French Huguenots whom Royal French forces held besieged in La Rochelle. [Citation needed] [3] The wars were largely ended by the Peace of Westphalia (1648), establishing a new political order now known as Westphalian sovereignty. The wars concluded in 1598 when Henry IV issued the Edict of Nantes, which granted a degree of religious toleration to Protestants. Henry Tudor (later Henry VII) defeated and killed Richard III at Bosworth Field on August 22, 1485, bringing the Wars of the Roses to a close. Henry soon found himself in the difficult position of trying to maintain royal authority in the face of feuding warlords who refused to compromise. This period was also known for the Inquisition. By now Calvinist mobs had overrun much of central Scotland, destroying monasteries and Catholic churches as they went. 1. Ferdinand, having been educated by the Jesuits, was a staunch Catholic. In the pattern of Calvinist riots in France and the Netherlands, the mob then attacked two friaries in the town, looting their gold and silver and smashing images. Both parties laid aside their scruples and struck down their opponents without mercy. Switzerland was to be divided into a patchwork of Protestant and Catholic cantons, with the Protestants tending to dominate the larger cities, and the Catholics the more rural areas. Christian had himself appointed war leader of the Lower Saxon Alliance and raised an army of 20,000–35,000 mercenaries. This was a means of preserving absolute control over the Low Countries and it was an excellent vehicle to promote the spread of the Inquisition. The Huguenots tried to gain French government support for intervention against the Spanish forces arriving in the Netherlands. Bodies were exhumed and corpses were stripped. The Huguenot army was under the command of Louis I de Bourbon, prince de Condé, and aided by forces from south-eastern France and a contingent of Protestant militias from Germany—including 14,000 mercenary reiters led by the Calvinist Duke of Zweibrücken. England, Scotland and Ireland, in personal union under the Stuart king, James I & VI, continued Elizabeth I's policy of providing military support to European Protestants in the Netherlands and France. One morning, 1,500 were seized in their sleep and sent to jail. But even before their arrival, the mob had already sacked the churches and the friaries. War of The Century. That effectively disinherited Henry’s son, Prince Edward, and caused Queen Margaret to continue her opposition. As the period of sieges subsided, the War of Liberation continued. Mary set out for Stirling on 26 August 1565 to confront them. His lands would therefore fall to his nearest male relative, his cousin Ferdinand of Styria. 7.2 (9) 0. However, the massacre has significance mainly as a symbol of the Irish perception of Cromwellian cruelty, as far more people died in the subsequent guerrilla warfare and scorched-earth fighting in the country than at infamous massacres such as Drogheda and Wexford. This was Alva's downfall. What followed was a series of mutual confiscation of property as England and Spain played international cat-and-mouse. Philip became dissatisfied with Margaret, and seized the opportunity to relieve her. [33][full citation needed]. Martin Luther rejected the demands of the insurgents and upheld the right of Germany's rulers to suppress the uprisings,[24] setting out his views in his polemic Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants. A group called the "Beggars" grew in strength and proceeded to raise a sizable army. Another tells of an enraged man who interrupted Christmas Mass, took the host, and trampled it. Calvinism thrived in the mercantile atmosphere of the Low Countries. The Dissolution of the Monasteries, which began in 1536, provoked a violent northern Catholic rebellion in the Pilgrimage of Grace, which was eventually put down with much bloodshed. War Documentary hosted by Samuel West and published by BBC in 2005 - English narration [] Cover[] InformationIt was the bloodiest war in history, yet Hitler's brutal invasion of the Soviet Union and Stalin's subsequent fight back is surprisingly little known in the West. While the abhorrences that follow are equally frightening, the four Horsemen stand out in history as warning signs of the end of the world, and in the 14th century, they paid a visit to Europe and the surrounding world. What would drive him to make the most catastrophic mistake of World War II? In response, the Lutheran princes who had set up Protestant churches in their own realms met in the town of Schmalkalden in December 1530. They were financially supported by France and the money was poured into ships since Spain's control of the seas had been broken by England. Their captives were often given a choice between Calvinism and death. In December 1584, the Duke of Guise signed the Treaty of Joinville on behalf of the Catholic League with Philip II of Spain, who supplied a considerable annual grant to the League. The Netherlands and Switzerland were confirmed independent. The political conflicts thus engendered within the Empire led almost inevitably to war. Don Fadrique's troops indiscriminately sacked homes, monasteries and churches. The sudden death of Mary of Guise in Edinburgh Castle on 10 June 1560 paved the way for the signing of the Treaty of Edinburgh, and the withdrawal of French and English troops from Scotland, leaving the Scottish Calvinists in control on the ground. At its height, in the spring and summer of 1525, it involved an estimated 300,000 peasant insurgents. She therefore supported religious toleration in the shape of the Edict of Saint-Germain (January 1562), which allowed the Huguenots to worship publicly outside of towns and privately inside of them. The Dutch defenders taunted the Spanish besiegers by staging parodies of Catholic rituals on the cities ramparts.[29]. It begins with the story of Operation Barbarossa, and Germany's subsequent war against the Soviet Union. Mary escaped from Loch Leven the following year, and once again managed to raise a small army. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The first four of these seals unleash the four Horsemen, instruments of Death, War, Plague, and Famine. Austria-Hungary, which declared war on 28 July 1914, merely wanted to dismember Serbia, where irredentists were stirring up ethnic Serbs in Austrian … Protestants entered cathedrals smashing holy objects, breaking up altars and statues and smashing stained glass windows. The joint Royalist and Confederate forces under the Duke of Ormonde attempted to eliminate the Parliamentary army holding Dublin, but their opponents routed them at the Battle of Rathmines (2 August 1649). While War of the Century ("WOTC") is limited in scope to "just" the German v. Russian fronts, it one of the best documentaries ever produced in regards to the mentality of World War II. One Count fed the Eucharistic wafers to his parrot in defiance. By the end of the 16th century the Rhine lands and those of southern Germany remained largely Catholic, while Lutherans predominated in the north, and Calvinists dominated in west-central Germany, Switzerland, and the Netherlands. Rate. The most accurate description of the twentieth century is "The War and Welfare Century." The conflict took place mostly in southern, western and central areas of modern Germany but also affected areas in neighboring modern Switzerland, Austria and the Netherlands (for example, the 1535 Anabaptist riot in Amsterdam[16]). On 1 July, Knox preached from the pulpit of St Giles', the most influential in the capital. Great magnates with private armies dominated the countryside. After numerous minor incidents and provocations from both sides, a Catholic priest was executed in the Thurgau in May 1528, and the Protestant pastor J. Keyser was burned at the stake in Schwyz in 1529. S1, Ep1. The English parliament refused to vote enough money for Charles to defeat the Scots without the King giving up much of his authority and reforming the English church along more Calvinist lines. However, lacking a fleet, he was unable to take the Danish capital on the island of Zealand. The siege of Drogheda and massacre of nearly 3,500 people[citation needed]—comprising around 2,700 Royalist soldiers and all the men in the town carrying arms, including civilians, prisoners, and Catholic priests—became one of the historical memories that has driven Irish-English and Catholic-Protestant strife during the last three centuries. The war marked a continuation of the France-Habsburg rivalry for pre-eminence in Europe, which led later to direct war between France and Spain. This "Spanish Fury" was used by William to reinforce his arguments to ally all the Netherlands' Provinces with him. Wallenstein's army marched north, occupying Mecklenburg, Pomerania, and ultimately Jutland. Haarlem was a Calvinist center that was known for its enthusiastic support of the rebels. Their theological basis was in the liberal tradition of Erasmus versus the conservative line of the Spanish Church. In France Warwick regrouped the Yorkist forces and returned to England in June 1460, decisively defeating the Lancastrian forces at Northampton (July 10). In Northern Germany, Luther adopted the tactic of gaining the support of the local princes and city elites in his struggle to take over and re-establish the church along Lutheran lines. Like Richard II before him, Henry VI had powerful relatives eager to grasp after power and to place themselves at the head of factions in the state. Businessmen liked the role of the laity in Calvinist congregations. In the latter stages of the war, Catholic France, fearful of an increase in Habsburg power, also intervened on the Protestant side. He was put to torture by having his right hand and foot burned away to the bane. Philip II mishandled his responsibility through a series of bungled diplomatic maneuvers. By his marriage to Edward IV’s daughter Elizabeth of York in 1486, Henry united the Yorkist and Lancastrian claims. 1 Whereas the war which the Jews made with the Romans hath been the greatest of all those, not only that have been in our times, but, in a manner, of those that ever were heard of; both of those wherein cities have fought against cities, or nations against nations; while some men who were not concerned i… Rate. Spain made progress in trying to suppress the Dutch but the Dutch recovered. The second field action of the war was a stand-off at Turnham Green, and Charles was forced to withdraw to Oxford, which would serve as his base for the remainder of the war. The Beggars, who were nearly all ardent Calvinists, showed against the Catholics the same ferocity that the Inquisition and the Council of Blood had shown against rebels and heretics. they could often simultaneously be characterised as wars of succession), and financial interests. Warfare intensified after the Catholic Church began the Counter-Reformation in 1545 against the growth of Protestantism. Even then, religious strife continued through the Glorious Revolution and thereafter. The Austrian House of Habsburg, who remained Catholic, was a major European power in its own right, ruling over some eight million subjects in present-day Germany, Austria, Bohemia and Hungary. The Empire was a fragmented collection of practically independent states with an elected Holy Roman Emperor as their titular ruler; after the 14th century, this position was usually held by a Habsburg. The third bloodiest war of the 20th century was the Russian Civil War. The last straw was the installation of a Catholic reeve at Baden, and Zürich declared war on 8 June (First War of Kappel), occupied the Thurgau and the territories of the Abbey of St. Gall, and marched to Kappel at the border to Zug. This was considered the last and most costly victory of Alva's regime. The wars of religion in Ireland took place in the context of a country that had already rebelled frequently against English rule in the previous decades. Christian, however, was forced to retire before the combined forces of Imperial generals Albrecht von Wallenstein and Tilly. This period never experienced the fury of the early sieges; however, the struggle for independence went on. Charles of Lorraine, Duke of Mayenne, then became the leader of the Catholic League. The coldblooded and calculated ferocity that now entered English political life certainly owed something to the political ideas of the Italian Renaissance, but, arguably, it was also in part a legacy of the lawless habits acquired by the nobility during the Hundred Years’ War. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. By 1617 Germany was bitterly divided, and it was clear that Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia, would die without an heir. York tried to claim the throne but settled for the right to succeed upon the death of Henry. Philip's half brother, the famous Don John, was placed in charge of the Spanish troops who, feeling cheated at not being able to pillage Zeirikzee, mutinied and began a campaign of indiscriminate plunder and violence. In 1524, King Christian II converted to Lutheranism and encouraged Lutheran preachers to enter Denmark despite the opposition of the Danish diet of 1524. Henry defeated a Yorkist rising supporting the pretender Lambert Simnel on June 16, 1487, a date that some historians prefer over the traditional 1485 for the termination of the wars. The execution of Charles I altered the dynamics of the Civil War in Scotland, which had raged between Royalists and Covenanters since 1644. The Queen of England sent her apologies as a matter of diplomatic courtesy while unofficially enjoying Spain's troubles. Simultaneously Parliament offered concessions to the Scots in return for their aid and assistance. [28], While Alva rested, he sent his son Don Fadrique to revenge the Beggar's atrocities. On 30 June, the Protestants occupied Edinburgh, though they were only able to hold it for a month. It stated that: Religious tensions remained strong throughout the second half of the 16th century. It begins with the story of Operation Barbarossa, and Germany's subsequent war against the Soviet Union. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Meanwhile, the solidly Catholic people of Paris, under the influence of the Committee of Sixteen, were becoming dissatisfied with Henry III and his failure to defeat the Calvinists. The war ended with the Treaty of Münster, a part of the wider Peace of Westphalia. In 1521, Luther was excommunicated, sealing the schism within Western Christendom between the Roman Catholic Church and the Lutherans and opening the door for other Protestants to resist the power of the papacy. Ireland entered into a continuous state of war with the rebellion of 1641, with most of the island controlled by the Irish Confederates. Because of their revolutionary political ideas, radical reformers like Thomas Müntzer were compelled to leave the Lutheran cities of North Germany in the early 1520s. Although most of the wars ended with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648,[1][2] religious conflicts continued to be fought in Europe until at least the 1710s. [26] Sweden and Finland lost, by one calculation, 110,000 dead from all causes. The Empire also contained regional powers, such as Bavaria, the Electorate of Saxony, the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Electorate of the Palatinate, the Landgraviate of Hesse, the Archbishopric of Trier, and Württemberg. Henry was faced with the task of rebuilding a shattered and impoverished Kingdom and reuniting France under a single authority. It begins with the story of Operation Barbarossa, and Germany's subsequent war against the Soviet Union. Alva responded to his financial bind by imposing a new series of taxes. War of the Century from The History Channel examines the bloody conflict that took place in Eastern Europe during the Second World War. Attacks on Dutch border towns were made by Spinola, an Italian banker who pledged allegiance to Spain. The most politically significant turn of events came when Charles V of Spain transferred sovereignty of the Low Countries to his son Philip II. Two new forces emerged to oppose Spain. [2][4] The Peace of Westphalia (1648) broadly resolved the conflicts by recognising three separate Christian traditions in the Holy Roman Empire: Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism, and Calvinism. The return of Mary, Queen of Scots, to Scotland in 1560, led to further tension between her and the Protestant Lords of the Congregation. Both houses claimed the throne through descent from the sons of Edward III. Uit de diepte naar de hoogte", "France, Religious Wars, Catholic vs. Huguenot (1562–1598)", Rise of the Evangelical Church in Latin America, Persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire, Decline of Buddhism in the Indian subcontinent, Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent, Persecution of Muslims during Ottoman contraction, Persecution of Christians in the Eastern Bloc, Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries, Attacks by Islamic extremists in Bangladesh, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=European_wars_of_religion&oldid=992955289, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from February 2018, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from July 2020, Articles needing additional references from June 2018, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from May 2018, Articles with disputed statements from May 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2018, Articles needing additional references from January 2019, Articles with incomplete citations from March 2017, Articles with incomplete citations from February 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2008, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2007, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2018, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, began as a religious war; quickly became a French-Habsburg political clash, began as a religious war, and largely remained such, civil, religion-state relation and religious freedom issues, with a national element, conflicts over religion (and taxes and privileges) evolved into a war of independence, mixed economic and religious reasons, war between peasants and Protestant/Catholic landowners. LIST OF WARS. Altering the course of World War II, it shaped the borders and attitudes of Europe for the second half of the 20th Century. Much of the Huguenots' financing came from Queen Elizabeth I of England. William, who raised another army after a series of earlier defeats, again battled the Spanish without a single victory. War of the Century (1999– ) Episode List. A Spaniard had ceased to be human in their eyes. By 1646 Charles had been forced to surrender himself to the Scots, and the parliamentary forces were in control of England. 3. On 20 May the Scottish Parliament sentenced him to death and had him hanged the next day. Conflicts immediately connected with the Reformation: Conflicts after the death of Martin Luther: German princes could choose the religion (Lutheranism or Catholicism) of their realms according to their conscience. Catching the exhausted defenders sleeping, they massacred 6,000 men, women and children. In a pattern soon to become familiar in the Netherlands and Scotland, underground Calvinist preaching and the formation of covert alliances with members of the nobility quickly led to more direct action to gain political and religious control. There were nine members: seven Dutch and two Spanish. [26] Huge damage was done to monasteries, churches and other religious institutions. Here a group of prominent citizens, including the Lutheran pastor turned Anabaptist Bernhard Rothmann, Jan Matthys, and Jan Bockelson ("John of Leiden") had little difficulty in obtaining possession of the town on January 5, 1534. The wars listed were the most severe in casualties; the remaining religious conflicts in Europe lasted for only a few years, a year, or less and/or were much less violent. Between 1450 and 1460 Richard, 3rd duke of York, had become the head of a great baronial league, of which the foremost members were his kinsmen, the Nevilles, the Mowbrays, and the Bourchiers. The situation degenerated into the Eighth War (1585–1589). Failing this, Protestant troops then made an unsuccessful attempt to capture and take control of King Charles IX at Meaux in 1567. More than 170 million people were killed by governments with ten million being killed in World War I and fifty million killed in World War II. This did little to promote allegiance to Spain. The Elector of Saxony, the Landgrave of Hesse, and other North German princes not only protected Luther from retaliation from the edict of outlawry issued by the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, but also used state power to enforce the establishment of Lutheran worship in their lands, in what is called the Magisterial Reformation. The Cold War is a war that occurred in the 22nd century, starting in October 2139 and ending sometime during or after 2147. He and his troops controlled most of rural Normandy. Spain had taken the upper hand on land but the Beggars still controlled the sea. 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