Approximately five or six chapters of this manuscript exist. ‘The Wrench’ won Levi a great enthusiastic audience in Italy and also won him the Strega Prize in 1979. We were allowed to keep the money we had brought with us and to receive money from the outside. It was during this time that he started writing poetry about his experiences in the Lager. Levi became a major literary figure in Italy, and his books were translated into many other languages. Italian Jews had started joining the Fascist movement in small numbers. He was greatly bullied in his school. And now it is possible for them to do so. In October 1948, his daughter Lisa was born. Our conditions in the camp were quite good. Many of the stories from the two books Storie naturali (Natural Histories, 1966) and Vizio di forma (Structural Defect, 1971) were later collected and published in English as The Sixth Day and Other Tales. [25] As SIVA's principal chemist and trouble shooter, Levi travelled abroad. But Levi … He got admitted to the secondary school in autumn. Primo Levi schreibt klar und unverschnörkelt über die Hölle im Konzentrationslager. Levi’s written records suggest that as long as Fossoli was under Italian control, he was not harmed. After spending some time in a Soviet camp for former concentration camp inmates, he embarked on an arduous journey home in the company of former Italian prisoners of war who had been part of the Italian Army in Russia. Holocaust Survivors, Quotes By Primo Levi | There the surviving members are officially received as displaced persons in territory held by the Western allies. [11] Upon reading Concerning the Nature of Things by Sir William Bragg, Levi decided that he wanted to be a chemist. [7] In class he was the youngest, the shortest and the cleverest, as well as being the only Jew. Lucia, who now reciprocated Levi's love, helped him to edit it, to make the narrative flow more naturally. Levi suffered from the psychological trauma of his experiences. In early 1961 Levi started working on ‘The Truce’ which was published in 1963. He was in shirt sleeves for the interview, and the tattoo '74517' was visible on his left forearm. His father, Cesare, worked for the manufacturing firm Ganz and spent much of his time working abroad in Hungary, where Ganz was based. He … Many of Levi's experiences of this time found their way into his later writing. She wrote that others were being kept from public view by Levi's close friends, to whom he gave them, and they may have been destroyed. When the armistice was made public on 8 September, the Germans occupied northern and central Italy, liberated Mussolini from imprisonment and appointed him as head of the Italian Social Republic, a puppet state in German-occupied northern Italy. Are you an author? [32] These essays are very personal in nature. In 1919, Primo Levi was born into a Jewish family in Turin, Italy, in 1919. Levi (record number 174517) spent eleven months there before the camp was liberated by the Red Army on 27 January 1945. ‘If This Is a Man’ for the first time. She too was an avid reader, played the piano, and spoke fluent French. In March 1985 he wrote the introduction to the re-publication of the autobiography[30] of Rudolf Höss, who was commandant of Auschwitz concentration camp from 1940 to 1943. Of the 650 Italian Jews in his transport, Levi was one of twenty who left the camps alive. In 1964 Levi collaborated on a radio play based upon If This Is a Man with the state broadcaster RAI, and in 1966 with a theatre production. Primo Michele Levi (Italian: [ˈpriːmo ˈlɛːvi]; 31 July 1919 – 11 April 1987) was an Italian Jewish chemist, partisan, Holocaust survivor and writer. Suchergebnis auf Amazon.de für: levi Wählen Sie Ihre Cookie-Einstellungen Wir verwenden Cookies und ähnliche Tools, um Ihr Einkaufserlebnis zu verbessern, um unsere Dienste anzubieten, um zu verstehen, wie die Kunden unsere Dienste nutzen, damit wir Verbesserungen vornehmen … In 1964 Levi collaborated on a radio play based upon ‘If This Is a Man’ and in 1966 he took part in a theatre production. In 1933, as was expected of all young Italian schoolboys, he joined the Avanguardisti movement for young Fascists. At the end of February, he had ten pages detailing the last ten days between the German evacuation and the arrival of the Red Army. Cesare was an avid reader and autodidact. Also in 1986 another collection of short stories, previously published in La Stampa, was assembled and published as Racconti e saggi (some of which were published in the English volume The Mirror Maker). In 1975 a collection of Levi's poetry was published under the title L'osteria di Brema (The Bremen Beer Hall). Ann Goldstein. He worked to gain a reputation as a writer about subjects other than surviving Auschwitz. Über Empathie und Größenwahn. I met Primo Levi at his home in Turin one hot summer's day in 1986. The book was inspired by events during Levi's train journey home after release from the camp, narrated in The Truce. Primo Levy’s most popular work ‘If This Is a Man’ was made into a stage adaptation named ‘Primo’ in 2004. He was the author of several books, novels, collections of short stories, essays, and poems. He was shocked by revisionist attitudes that tried to rewrite the history of the camps as less horrific, what is now referred to as Holocaust denial. In 1978 Levi’s ‘La chiave a stella’ (published in the US in 1986 as The Monkey's Wrench and in the UK in 1987 as The Wrench) was written and published. He noted that it was highly organized and mechanized; it entailed the degradation of Jews to the point of using their ashes as materials for paths. He spent time in Auschwitz and his novel If This Is a Man is a harrowing account of his ordeal. [39], Levi rejected the idea that the labor camp system depicted in Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's The Gulag Archipelago and that of the Nazi Lager (German: konzentrationslager; see Nazi concentration camps) were equivalent. In July 1938 a group of prominent Italian scientists and intellectuals published the "Manifesto of Race," a mixture of racial and ideological antisemitic theories from ancient and modern sources. In his memoir, Levi contrasted Lorenzo with everyone else in the camp, prisoners and guards alike, as someone who managed to preserve his humanity. Levi was born in Turin on July 31, 1919, to a liberal Jewish family. In 1959 Heinz Riedt carried out the publication of ‘If This Is a Man’ in German. Turin, 1981. This gave him the opportunity to write undisturbed. In July 1934 at the age of 14, he sat the exams for the Liceo Classico D'Azeglio, a Lyceum (sixth form or senior high school) specializing in the classics, and was admitted that year. Levi returned to Turin to find his mother and sister having taken refuge in their holiday home La Saccarello in the hills outside the city. He recalled that as long as Fossoli was under the control of the Italian Social Republic, rather than Nazi Germany, he was not harmed. https://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/primo-levi-181.php, The Top 25 Wrestling Announcers Of All Time. He made several trips to Germany and carefully engineered his contacts with senior German businessmen and scientists. Levi’s father Cesare worked in a manufacturing firm Ganz for which he had to travel abroad to Hungary, which was the Headquarter of Ganz. Levi published his very famous and widely appreciated memoirs, ‘Il sistema periodico’ (The Periodic Table) in 1975 and ‘Lilit e altri racconti’ (Moments of Reprieve) in 1978. and reading it is agony.". Levi travelled on a circuitous route from Poland, through Bielorussia, Ukraine, Romania, Hungary, Austria and Germany to reach his homeland in Turin through railroad. Primo Levi (1919-1987) was an Italian chemist deported to Auschwitz in February 1944 after being captured during activities as a partisan. The racial laws prevented Levi from finding a suitable permanent job after graduation. The Italian resistance movement became increasingly active in the German-occupied zone. Levi died on 11 April 1987 after a fall from the interior landing of his third-story apartment in Turin to the ground floor below. [9] As a young boy Levi was plagued by illness, particularly chest infections, but he was keen to participate in physical activity. Levi, along with most of Turin's Jewish intellectuals, had not been religiously observant before World War II, but the Fascist race laws and the Nazi camps impressed on him his identity as a Jew. Carole Angier, in her biography of Levi, describes how she tracked some of these essays down. In 1977 at the age of 58, Levi retired as a part-time consultant at the SIVA paint factory to devote himself full-time to writing. Levi wanted to tell the world all about the Nazis' attempt to exterminate the Jewish people. Levi worked under a false name with false papers. At the time he had two young children, and a responsible job at a factory where accidents could and did have terrible consequences. The Italian writer Primo Levi showing his serial number tattoo. When told he would be shot as an Italian partisan, Levi confessed to being Jewish. On 22 December 1946, the manuscript was complete. During this period, his friend Lorenzo Perrone's physical and psychological health declined. Camp inmates were forced to walk in the long death march in spite of their severe illnesses resulting in the death of most of the inmates. Levi died in 1987 from injuries sustained in a fall from a third-story apartment landing. Levi used to write these stories and hoard them, releasing them to La Stampa at the rate of about one a week. [43], Views on Nazism, Soviet Union and antisemitism, The distinct purpose of the extermination camps, Site of Buna Werke plant approximately 10km or 6.2 miles from Auschwitz. Doctors prescribed several different drugs over the years, but these had variable efficacy and side effects. Born into a Jewish family, from 1943, he was a research chemist in Milan and the German intervention into North Italy prompted his joining of a anti-fascist group. The underlying philosophy is that pride in one's work is necessary for fulfillment. He retook and passed his final examinations, and in October enrolled at the University of Turin to study chemistry. In order to hide themselves Levi and his family went off to Saint-Vincent in the Aosta Valley located in northern Italy. Having no work in Turin Levi tried to find work in Milan. A thin and delicate child, he was shy and considered himself ugly; he excelled academically. [12], In 1937, he was summoned before the War Ministry and accused of ignoring a draft notice from the Italian Royal Navy—one day before he was to write a final examination on Italy's participation in the Spanish Civil War, based on a quote from Thucydides: "We have the singular merit of being brave to the utmost degree." Three years later, Primo Levi's sister Anna Maria was born, and in 1925 Primo joined FeliceRignon Primary School in Turin. It was during this time and in this place that Levi drafted. Levi was enrolled in the Felice Rignon primary school in Turin in 1925. Their books were prohibited: Jewish writers could no longer publish in magazines owned by Aryans. Our condition in the camp was quite good. Levi wrote If This Is a Man to bear witness to the horrors of the Nazis' attempt to exterminate the Jewish people and others. In his teens, Levi and a few friends would sneak into a disused sports stadium and conduct athletic competitions. At a Jewish New Year party in 1946 he met Lucia Morpurgo who offered to teach him to dance with whom Levi fell in love. "[41] The goal of the Lager was the extermination of the Jewish race in Europe. In 1933 Levi joined the young Italian Fascist movement, “Avanguardisti” like his fellow Italian schoolboys. Italian liberation and movements of resistance to German genocide started growing at this time. In his later life, Levi indicated that he was suffering from depression; factors likely included responsibility for his elderly mother and mother-in-law, with whom he was living, and lingering traumatic memories of his experiences. Cesare was born in 1878. At one point in the journey, a band of Zionists hitched their wagon to the refugee train. In March 1942, Levi he lost his father due to which he had to leave Turin and his mining. Directed by Kornél Mundruczó. Levi pursued his education in the midst of bombardments. He took several months to recover from his physical and mental trauma. In September 1930 Levi entered the Massimo d'Azeglio Royal Gymnasium a year ahead of normal entrance requirements. In it he writes, "It's filled with evil . In it he tried to analyse why people behaved the way they did at Auschwitz, and why some survived whilst others perished. Being pursued as Jews, many of whom had already been interned by the authorities, they moved up the hillside to Amay in the Colle di Joux. In 1975 Levi brought his poetry collection, under the title ‘L’osteria di Brema’ (The Bremen Beer Hall), published in English as ‘Shema: Collected Poems’. New Jewish students were not allowed in Universities but since Levi had matriculated a year ago he could continue with his degree course. At a Jewish New Year party in 1946, he met Lucia Morpurgo, who offered to teach him to dance. This is refuted strongly by Thomson (2002). Levi fell in love with Lucia. Levi's illness spared him this fate. Painter Larry Rivers with portraits of Primo Levi on February 10, 1988 in New York, New York. Moments of Reprieve deals with characters he observed during imprisonment. In 1986 his book I sommersi e i salvati (The Drowned and the Saved), was published. His father, Cesare, worked for the manufacturing firm Ganz and spent much of his time working abroad in Hungary, where Ganz was based. Levi himself gave bare testimony of his time as a Nazi slave labourer. Levi’s school records show his long absence from school during which Levi was home tutored by Emilia Glauda and then by Marisa Zini, daughter of philosopher Zino Zini. In December 1941 Levi received a clandestine job offer at an asbestos mine in San Vittore. For the rest of his life Levi wrote many books, including If this is a Man and The Truce, to bear witness to the Nazi attempt to exterminate the Jewish people. We worked in the kitchen in turn and performed other services in the camp. Fossoli was then taken over by the Nazis, who started arranging the deportations of the Jews to eastern concentration and death camps. Levi was enrolled in Massimo d'Azeglio Royal Gymnasium in 1930. The project was to extract nickel from the mine spoil, a challenge he accepted with pleasure. 19. The novel won both the Premio Campiello and the Premio Viareggio. . "[36], Several of Levi's friends and associates have argued otherwise. Levi's professional qualifications were useful: in mid-November 1944, he secured a position as an assistant in IG Farben's Buna Werke laboratory that was intended to produce synthetic rubber. In June 1940 Italy declared war as an ally of Germany against Britain and France, and the first Allied air raids on Turin began two days later. Levi returned to Turin only to find his mother and sister seeking refuge in their holiday home La Saccarello in the hills outside Turin. Levi married Lucia in September 1947 and on 11 October 1947 Levi’s ‘If This Is a Man’ was published with a print run of 2000 copies. As Fossoli went into German control, Jews were gathered for being deported. At about this time, he started writing poetry about his experiences in Auschwitz. Primo Michele Levi was born on month day 1919, at birth place, to Cesare Levi and Ester (Rina) Levi. After the war, Lorenzo could not cope with the memories of what he had seen, and descended into alcoholism. The marriage between Rina and Cesare had been arra… In 1921 Anna Maria, Levi's sister, was born; he remained close to her all her life. Lorenzo had been a civilian forced worker in Auschwitz, who for six months had given part of his ration and a piece of bread to Levi without asking for anything in return. On 21 January 1946 he started work at DUCO, a Du Pont Company paint factory outside Turin. It was not before 1958 that Einaudi publishers (who had initially rejected Levi’s manuscript) published a revised work of Levi’s book. Primo had one sister: Anna Maria Zimet Halevy. We even prepared a dining room, a rather sparse one, I must admit”. It soon became clear that the project had no chance of succeeding, but it was in no one's interest to say so.[17]. Levi's intelligence is obvious, and he enters school a year early. [4] On their wedding day, Rina's father, Cesare Luzzati, gave Rina the apartment at Corso Re Umberto, where Primo Levi lived for almost his entire life. June 10, 2002 Primo Levi was a man whom people wanted on their side. This evacuation resulted due to the approaching Red Army of Soviet Union power. Levi’s school had many anti-fascist teachers who were famous in their fields. The Periodic Table is a collection of short pieces, based in episodes from his life but including two short stories that he wrote before his time in Auschwitz. In July 1943, King Victor Emmanuel III deposed Mussolini and appointed a new government under Marshal Pietro Badoglio, prepared to sign the Armistice of Cassibile with the Allies. In 1963 Levi received his first annual Premio Campiello literary award. [20] Every day he scribbled notes on train tickets and scraps of paper as memories came to him. He went to Milan in June 1942 where he found work in a Swiss firm of A Wander Ltd on a project to extract an anti-diabetic from vegetable matter. Primo Levi, an Italian Jew, was born and raised in a middle class family in Turin, Italy, that lived through the horrors of the Holocaust at Auschwitz. [35] The Nobel laureate and Holocaust survivor Elie Wiesel said, at the time, "Primo Levi died at Auschwitz forty years later. Levi remained for 11 long months inside this camp before being liberated by the Red Army on 18 January 1945. No one could renounce Judaism; the Nazis treated Jews as a racial group rather than as a religious one. Based on the book of Primo Levi stories Levi heard, during the War and after, of Jewish partisans who fought and struggled against … On the second of these transports, on 21 February 1944, Levi and other inmates were transported in twelve cramped cattle trucks to Monowitz, one of the three main camps in the Auschwitz concentration camp complex. In March 1985 while writing the introduction to the re-publication of the autobiography of Rudolf Höß who was commandant of Auschwitz concentration camp from 1940 to 1943 Levi wrote, “It's filled with evil.....and reading it is agony”. Also in 1959 Heinz Riedt, also under close supervision by Levi,[26] translated it into German. Levi worked hard to prove the revisionist attitudes trying to rewrite the history of the camps as less horrific wrong. Levi knew some German from reading German publications on chemistry; he worked to orient quickly to life in the camp without attracting the attention of the privileged inmates. Levi’s academic qualifications and professional experiences made him get a job offer as an assistant in IG Farben's Buna Werke laboratory that was intended to produce synthetic rubber in mid-November 1944. On 21 February 1944 Jewish camp inmates in Fossoli were transported in twelve cramped cattle trucks to Monowitz and taken to one of the three main camps in the Auschwitz concentration camp complex (Levi’s record number was 174,517). From the July 31st edition of The Writer's Almanac: It's the birthday of writer Primo Levi, born in Turin, Italy (1919.) She too was an avid … In 1939 Levi started mountain hiking. I remember wishing family and friends were there with me to share the experience. In 1984 Levi published his only novel, If Not Now, When?— or his second novel, if The Monkey Wrench is counted. The Primo Levi Center, a non-profit organisation dedicated to studying the history and culture of Italian Jewry, was named after the author and established in New York City in 2003. Levi was born in 1919 in Turin, Italy, at Corso Re Umberto 75, into a liberal Jewish family. Italian novelist, essayist, poet and scientist, whose writings were influenced by his imprisonment at a concentration camp in Auschwitz, 1944-1945. Customers Also Bought Items By Elie Wiesel Albert Camus Italo Calvino Viktor E. Frankl Sarah Helm Laurence Rees Read more. Levi's mother, Ester, known to everyone as Rina, was well educated, having attended the Istituto Maria Letizia. No one seemed capable of shattering the momentary silence. His sister, Anna Maria, arrives two years later; she and Primo maintain a close relationship all their lives. His degree certificate bore the remark, "of Jewish race". Air raids took place in Turin two days later. http://lhsenglish10hwl2013.pbworks.com/w/page/81464789/StephanieGuillen, http://www.glistatigenerali.com/integrazione_letteratura_storia-cultura/primo-levi-per-un-giorno-della-memoria-che-sfidi-tutti-i-pregiudizi/, http://www.modenatoday.it/eventi/teatro/giorno-memoria-primo-levi-teatro-storchi-27-gennaio-2013.html. They made most of their money from making and supplying stannous chloride for mirror makers,[23] delivering the unstable chemical by bicycle across the city. [10] Levi continued to be bullied during his time at the Lyceum, although six other Jews were in his class. Also in 1985 a volume of his essays, previously published in La Stampa, was published under the title L'altrui mestiere (Other People's Trades). [29] It brought Levi a wider audience in Italy. His family was of a middle-class and of a Jewish religion where Primo grew as a timid boy. ‘Storie naturali’ (Natural Histories) was published in 1966 and ‘Vizio di forma’ (Structural Defect) got published in 1971 which were later released in English as ‘The Sixth Day and other Tales’. Levi was born in 1919 in Turin, Italy, at Corso Re Umberto 75, into a liberal Jewish family. Levi’s mother Ester, … Being born in a Jewish Italian family Levi’s family was subjected to Nazi terror. Levi left the mine in June to work in Milan. There was no talk of executions and the atmosphere was quite calm. By avoiding hard labour in freezing outdoor temperatures he was able to survive; also, by stealing materials from the laboratory and trading them for extra food. He regularly contributed articles to La Stampa, the Turin newspaper. Levi later recounted this series of events in the short story "Fra Diavolo on the Po".[13]. Levi had written, “We were given, on a regular basis, a food ration destined for the soldiers”. That year it won the first annual Premio Campiello literary award. Levi was about to be shot and was told that he would be shot and identified as an Italian resistance soldier when he confessed of being a Jew and was sent to an internment camp for Jews at Fossoli near Modena. In the Soviet Union his early works were not accepted by censors as he had portrayed Soviet soldiers as slovenly and disorderly rather than heroic. Levi's mother, Ester, known to everyone as Rina, was well educated, having attended the Istituto Maria Letizia. Levi further wrote, “and at the end of January 1944, we were taken to Fossoli on a passenger train. It is often reported that Pavese was Levi's teacher of Italian. Levi’s mother Ester, also known as Rina, was a pianist and spoke great French. Levi's mother Ester, known to everyone as Rina, was well educated, having attended the Istituto Maria Letizia. Levi made several trips to rescue his old friend from the streets, but in 1952 Lorenzo died.[22]. His father remained in the city, partly because of his dislike of the rural life, but also because of his infidelities.[6]. It is often published in one volume with If This Is a Man, as it covers his long return through eastern Europe from Auschwitz. There was no talk of executions and the atmosphere was quite calm. Primo Levi was born into a Jewish family in Turin, Italy, in 1919. She too was an avid reader, played the piano, and spoke fluent French. In 1958 Einaudi, a major publisher, published it in a revised form and promoted it. [15] A friend, Sandro Delmastro, taught him how to hike, and they spent many weekends in the mountains above Turin. Primo Michele Levi (Italian: [ˈpriːmo ˈlɛːvi]; 31 July 1919 -- 11 April 1987) was an Italian Jewish chemist and writer. Portrait of Italian author and chemist Primo Levi , 1985. The school was noted for its well-known anti-Fascist teachers, among them the philosopher Norberto Bobbio, and Cesare Pavese, who later became one of Italy's best-known novelists. While coming upon reading “Concerning the Nature of Things” by Sir William Bragg, Levi got hooked to Chemistry and desired of becoming a chemist. Levi's reputation was growing. I. According to witnesses it was a case of suicide. Because of the new racial laws and the increasing intensity of prevalent fascism, Levi had difficulty finding a supervisor for his graduation thesis, which was on the subject of Walden inversion, a study of the asymmetry of the carbon atom. Others have called it a novel, created by the linked stories and characters. He is not simply a great 20th-century writer, like Proust or Joyce or Eliot, who have all been deeply and repeatedly explored. However, Levi fortunately came across Dr. Nicolò Dallaporta under whom he completed his graduation degree in the summer of 1941. Various works of Levi have been translated to English in recent times. His intellect and curiosity place him among the smartest students, and … Levi had matriculated a year earlier than scheduled enabling him to take a degree. In later writings, he noted the millions of displaced people on the roads and trains throughout Europe in that period. All these experiences found place in Levi’s books in later years. The three embarked to Saint-Vincent in the Aosta Valley, where they could be hidden. Levi’s little sister was born in 1921 with whom Levi remained closely attached throughout his life. Levi’s family was soon pursued by the authorities, which made them move up to the hillside to Amay in the Colle di Joux. Levi described his 11 months from February 21 1944 until liberation on January 27, 1945 in the German concentration camp at Auschwitz in Poland in this book which was completed by Levi in December 1946. We were given, on a regular basis, a food ration destined for the soldiers", Levi's testimony stated, "and at the end of January 1944, we were taken to Fossoli on a passenger train. In June 1940 Italy declared war against Britain and France. Levi got bullied in the secondary school but he found 6 other Jewish boys in his school. Distracted and terrified by the draft accusation, he failed the exam—the first poor grade of his life—and was devastated. Quote Of The Day | Top 100 Quotes, Levi’s little sister was born with whom Levi remained closely attached throughout his life, Levi was enrolled in the Felice Rignon primary school in Turin, Levi was enrolled in Massimo d'Azeglio Royal Gymnasium, s Minor systematic discrimination towards Italian Jews started off, In August when Levi had already shifted to Talmud Torah School in Turin where he sang at the local synagogue for his ‘Bar Mitzvah’, Levi joined the young Italian Fascist movement, “Avanguardisti” movement like his fellow Italian schoolboys, In July Levi was 14 years old when he appeared for his exams for the ‘Massimo d'Azeglio liceo classico’, a Lyceum (sixth form) specialising in the classics, – In October he enrolled himself at the University of Turin, to study chemistry, In February Levi graduated and took on to continue the full-time chemistry course, In July ‘Manifesto of the Race’ was announced which stated that only one pure Italian race existed and they all descended from Aryans, In September the Fascist government introduced racial laws which started being severe on Jews and prohibited them from taking formal education in state sponsored schools, In June Italy declared war against Britain and France, He completed his graduation degree in the summer, In December Levi secretly got a job at asbestos mine at San Vittore where he was made to extract nickel from the mine spoil, – In March Levi was working in the mine when he lost his father, – He went to Milan in June where he found work in a Swiss firm of A Wander Ltd on a project to extract an anti-diabetic from vegetable matter, Italy was going through several changes when in September the new Italian government under Marshal Pietro Badoglio signed an armistice with the Allies and the former leader Benito Mussolini was released from imprisonment by the Germans only to be installed as a puppet ruler of the Italian Social Republic in German-occupied northern Italy, Levi joined fellow comrades and took to the foothills of the Alps and in October he joined the liberal Giustizia e Libertà partisan movement, On 21 February Jewish camp inmates in Fossoli were transported in twelve cramped cattle trucks to Monowitz and taken to one of the three main camps in the Auschwitz concentration camp complex (Levi’s record number was 174,517), – On 18 January there was a hurried attempt of evacuation of the camps by The Schutzstaffel which was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party, Levi completed the manuscript for ‘If This Is a Man’ on 22 December, Levi left DUCO in the end of June to team up with an old friend Alberto Salmoni to run a chemical consultancy, – On 11 October Levi’s ‘If This Is a Man’ was published with a print run of 2000 copies, After Lucia got pregnant in April Levi decided to leave his Chemist’s job and agreed to go and work for Federico Accatti in the family paint business which traded under the name SIVA, In October Levi’s first child, his daughter Lisa, was born, It was not before 1958 that Einaudi publishers (who had initially rejected Levi’s manuscript) published a revised work of Levi’s book, Levi was helped by Stuart Woolf to come out with an English translation of ‘If This Is a Man’, ‘If This Is a Man’ was published in the UK by Orion Press, Heinz Riedt carried out the publication of ‘If This Is a Man’ in German, In early 1961 Levi started working on ‘The Truce’, Levi received his first annual Premio Campiello literary award, Levi collaborated on a radio play based upon ‘If This Is a Man’, – He took part in a theatre production based on his play, ‘Storie naturali’ (Natural Histories) was published, ‘Vizio di forma’ (Structural Defect) got published which were later released in English as ‘The Sixth Day and other Tales’, - Levi brought his poetry collection, under the title ‘L’osteria di Brema’ (The Bremen Beer Hall), published in English as ‘ShemaCollected Poems’, Levi published his very famous and widely appreciated memoirs, ‘Il sistema periodico’ (The Periodic Table), – He published his second memoir ‘Lilit e altri racconti’ (Moments of Reprieve), Levi published his novels, ‘If Not Now, When?’ and ‘The Monkey's Wrench’. 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